List of Beamline Practicals

We have 22 laboratory courses (beamline practicals) using SPring-8 facilities. Please note that the number of students for each course is limited and not all requests can be met. In addition, your preferred Beamline practicals may have been changed due to cancellation caused by the Beamline mechanical problems.
*It is recommended to wear proper shoes and shirt with sleeves during the beamline practice. Sandals or high-heeled shoes are not appropriate.


Theme: in-situ XAFS Measurement of Catalyst Samples
Toshiaki Ina, Kazuo Kato, Tomoya Uruga (JASRI/SPring-8) and Paul Fons(AIST & JASRI/SPring-8)
The bending magnet beamline, BL01B1, is used for various applications of XAFS over a wide energy range from 3.8 to 113 keV. In the practical training course, we plan to show how to measure XAFS spectra, which covers alignment of X-ray optics and sample position. We will also demonstrate in-situ time-resolved quick scanning XAFS measurement of catalyst samples under reaction condition.
  beamline practical text 841KB


Theme: Absolute Structure Determination from Single Crystal X-ray Diffraction
Kunihisa Sugimoto and Nobuhiro Yasuda (JASRI/SPring8)
The beamline of BL02B1 is designed for single crystal X-ray diffraction measurements. One of advantage of single crystal analysis is absolute structure determination, which is the spatial arrangement of the atoms of a physically identified chiral crystal. For absolute structure and its determination, the inversion distinguishing power of an X-ray diffraction experiment with dispersive scatterers are examined. In this beamline practical course, we will plan the experiment how to determine an absolute structure from single crystal diffraction.
  beamline practical text 170KB

Theme: Rietveld Refinement using Synchrotron X-ray Powder Diffraction Data
Shogo Kawaguchi, Bagautdin Bagautdinov and Kunihisa Sugimoto (JASRI/SPring8)
BL02B2 is designed for the research on accurate structure analysis by powder specimens in the area of materials science. The beamline practice of BL02B2 has a plan to teach how to measure an accurate X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) with synchrotron radiation and what kinds of information can be obtained from Rietveld refinement. XRPD experiment will perform using standard materials: Si, CeO2, α-Al2O3, and CeO2―α-Al2O3 (mixture), and follow the procedure : 1) sample preparation, 2) mounting sample and position alignment on goniometer, 3) Image Plate (IP) set in a large Debye-Scherrer camera, 4) data collection, 5) data readout of IP, 6) data reduction, 7) whole pattern fitting, 8) Rietveld refinement. Goal of this beamline practice is to determine lattice parameter, crystal structure, atomic displacement parameter, and composition ratio of mixture from Rietveld refinement.
  beamline practical text 826KB


Theme: Undulator Radiation and its Application to Beam Diagnostics
Mitsuhiro Masaki and Takahiro Watanabe (JASRI/SPring8)
The spectral, spatial, and temporal characteristics of undulator radiations reflect the transversal and longitudinal properties of stored electron beam in the storage ring. To study basic characteristics of undulator radiations, we will provide an opportunity to measure their spectral fluxes and spatial profiles. As an example of applications to beam diagnostics, this laboratory course will include a measurement of a small vertical electron beam size at a source point of an insertion device by observing a single-slit X-ray Fresnel diffraction image.
  beamline practical text 1.27MB


Theme: Compton Scattering Measurement with Laue-Geometry Spectrometer
Masayoshi Ito (JASRI/SPring-8)
When A.H. Compton discovered "Compton scattering", a broadening of scattered x-ray peak was also captured. Now, the broadening is used for studies of electronic states of atoms. In high energy beamline BL08W, a Laue-geometry wave dispersive spectrometer is installed for Compton scattering measurement. In the practice, we will measure one-dimensional projections of electron momentum density distribution of a single crystal.
  beamline practical text 171KB


Theme: Probing Atomic Vibration using Nuclear Resonant Inelastic Scattering
Yoshitaka Yoda (JASRI/SPring-8)
Quantized vibrational motion is called a phonon, which is investigated by several spectroscopic methods such as Raman spectroscopy, inelastic X-ray scattering and neutron scattering. Its typical energy range is ~100 meV. Nuclear resonant scattering (NRS) is caused by a nuclear level, which has ~neV energy width. Every isotope has different nuclear level, so NRS has distinguished feature of just probing a specific isotope. Recently biochemical materials such as an enzyme have been intensively studied by NRS to focus on its active center in the complicated system. In the beamline practical, we will introduce a high-resolution monochromator and a fast timing detector, which have crucial roles to realize this spectroscopy at synchrotron radiation and a model sample will be measured in the cryostat.
  beamline practical text 3.38MB


Theme: High-pressure Powder X-ray Diffraction Measurements in a Diamond Anvil Cell
Naohisa Hirao (JASRI/SPring-8)
The undulator beamline BL10XU is dedicated for X-ray diffraction experiments at high pressure and low/high temperature using a diamond anvil cell (DAC). High-resolution angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction with a focused monochromatic beam allows to do structure refinement analysis in materials submitted to extreme pressures. To have a better understanding of high-pressure research using a combination of synchrotron radiation and the DAC technique through this BL practice course, in situ high-pressure X-ray diffraction experiments will be carried out.
  beamline practical text 416KB


Theme: X-ray Diffraction Measurement of a Reconstructed Surface
Hiroo Tajiri (JASRI/SPring-8)
The undulator beamline BL13XU is dedicated to studies of  surface/interface structures using surface X-ray diffraction. Precise structure determination of a crystal surface can be done by measuring crystal truncation rod (CTR) scatterings, which originate from termination of the surface. In the beamline practical, we measure CTR scatterings from a reconstructed surface in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) with a 1-ton UHV chamber mounted on a 2+2 type diffractometer.
  beamline practical text 959KB


Theme: Soft X-ray Spectroscopy of Solution Under Atmospheric Pressure
Takashi Tokushima (RIKEN/SPring-8)
Since electronic state of molecules governs chemical properties including chemical reactions, investigation of electronic state is an important field of chemical physics. At the soft x-ray beamline BL17SU, the liquid flow cell using an ultra-thin window (thickness = 150nm) and a high performance spectrometer have been developed for spectroscopic studies of liquids and solutions under atmospheric pressure. In the course, the participants will experience x-ray emission and x-ray absorption measurements of the solution samples. Both of these methods are the kinds of photon-in photon-out experiment, and are the powerful method applicable to investigations of the electronic structure of various systems including liquids and solution.
  beamline practical text 749KB


Theme: Observation of Photoinduced Carrier Dynamics at the Interface by means of Time-Resolved Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
Masaki Oura (RIKEN SPring-8 Center) and Hitoshi Osawa (JASRI/SPring-8)
It is well known that hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) is one of the most powerful methods to investigate the bulk electronic structure of condensed matter. In order to extend its capability for studying transient electronic states in the time-scale from femtosecond to subnanosecond regime, we have been developing a time-resolved HAXPES system at the ultra-short high-brilliance x-ray sources, such as the 27m-long undulator beamline BL19LXU of SPring-8 and the x-ray free electron laser facility SACLA. In the practical course, participants will learn the principle of HAXPES and measure the core-level photoelectron as well as Auger electron spectra of target material. Furthermore, with the use of femtosecond optical laser and also the x-ray chopper, we will try to perform the observation of photoinduced carrier dynamics at SiO2/Si interface by time-resolved HAXPES. Participants will also learn how we can realize time-resolved HAXPES to study the ultrafast dynamics of electronic structure in condensed matter.
  beamline practical text 1.23MB


Theme: Detector Evaluation for Micro-Tomography Experiments at BL20B2
Kentaro Uesugi and Masato Hoshino (JASRI/SPring-8)
Micro-tomography experiments are carried out at many synchrotron radiation facilities in the world. X-ray image detector is one of a key device for those experiments. In the practice, we will start from evaluating of the characteristics of image detector for tomography. Some examples of absorption based micro-tomography will be shown as a demonstration.
  beamline practical text 57KB


Theme: Making of Micro/Nano-beam with Fresnel Zone Plate Optics
Akihisa Takeuchi (JASRI/SPring-8)
The Fresnel zone plate (FZP) is a focusing/image-forming optics widely used in the x-ray region. The FZP for x-rays is fabricated by recent nano-technology, and a few tens nm spatial resolution has been achieved using FZP optics and the third generation synchrotron radiation light sources. Unlike the conventional optical lens, the FZP is somewhat complicated optics. In the course, we will study, what is the characteristics of FZP, how the FZP works, how to make microprobe with FZP, and how to measure the probe size, etc, for deep understanding of x-ray fucusing/imaging optics. A demonstration of scanning microscopy is also planned.
  beamline practical text 3.29MB


Theme: Protein Structure Determination using the S-SAD Method
Kazuya Hasegawa, Seiki Baba (JASRI/SPring-8) and Go Ueno (RIKEN)
Sulfur SAD (S-SAD) phasing has been got attention because it does not need heavy atom derivative and is expected to improve the throughput of structure determination. However, accurate measurement of diffraction intensity is crucial for the success of S-SAD because of the small anomalous signal of sulfur atom. In this exercise, participants will collect diffraction data from a protein crystal and determine the structure by using S-SAD phasing.
  beamline practical text 1.93MB


Theme: Soft X-ray Photoabsorption Spectroscopy
Yusuke Tamenori (JASRI/SPring-8)
BL27SU is used for x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) applications in the soft X-ray region (0.17-3.3 keV). In the practical training course, the participants will learn how to measure soft X-ray XAS spectrum. The participants will gain experience in sample preparation, sample alignment inside a vacuum chamber, and data acquisition. XAS spectra will be measured by means of the electron yield method and the fluorescence yield method using a Silicon-drift-detector.
  beamline practical text 208KB


Theme: High-resolution Imaging of Nanostructure Materials by Focused X-ray Ptychography
Yukio Takahashi (Osaka Univ., RIKEN) and Nicolas Burdet (RIKEN)
Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) is a lensless imaging technique based on coherent diffraction and phase retrieval calculation, which can achieve a high spatial resolution beyond that of conventional X-ray microscopes with lenses. X-ray ptychography is a method of CXDI for reconstructing extended objects, in which a probe is scanned across the sample and the diffraction pattern is observed at each beam position. The spatial resolution of CXDI is limited, in principle, only by the X-ray wavelength and the largest scattering angle recorded. The use of highly focused incident X-ray beams is effective for collecting high angle diffraction data at a high signal-to-noise ratio. In the course, the participants will experience experiments of coherent X-ray diffraction pattern measurements of nanostructure materials using high-intense X-rays focused by Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors. We will demonstrate the image reconstruction from the diffraction patterns using a phase retrieval calculation.
  beamline practical text 1.13MB


Theme: Atomic Dynamics of a Simple Metal via High Resolution Inelastic X-ray Scattering
Satoshi Tsutsui and Hiroshi Uchiyama (JASRI/SPring-8)
Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is a complementary technique to inelastic neutron scattering (INS) for investigation of atomic dynamics in materials. Investigation of atomic dynamics requires meV-resolution setup with an angstrom or shorter wave length X-ray or neutron. However, meV-resolution spectroscopy with X-ray is not easy to achieve for investigation of atomic dynamics, because energy of 1 Ǻ wave length corresponds to 12.4 keV in X-ray in spite of 81.8 meV in neutron. This means that ΔE / E is much smaller in X-ray for meV-resolution spectroscopy than in neutron. In addition, signal intensity is generally low in inelastic scattering experiments. Therefore, brilliance X-ray source is needed to carry out IXS experiments. Since third-generation synchrotron facilities were built, several IXS spectrometers for lattice dynamics have been installed in these facilities. We have two IXS spectrometers in SPring-8. BL35XU is one of them. In this BL practical, you can learn measurement of IXS spectra in a crystalline sample. You will measure IXS spectra at several positions in reciprocal space to learn polarization and momentum transfer dependences of IXS spectra in crystalline samples.
  beamline practical text 282KB


Theme: X-ray Fluorescence Analysis using Microfocusing Optics
Yasuko Terada (JASRI/SPring-8)
Phonons and phonon dispersion are unusual subjects to investigate at a synchrotron radiation source as there are only a few instruments in the world capable of such studies. However, the field is rapidly expanding as there is an increasing interest in such studies both intrinsically to investigate atomic dynamics, and considering phonons as one component of complex correlated system. This course will introduce the students to phonons and phonon measurements using meV-resolved inelastic x-ray scattering. We will investigate the coupling between the magnetic structure and lattice excitations in an antiferromagnet.
  beamline practical text 4.86MB


Theme: Handling of X-ray Polarization and Application to X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy
Motohiro Suzuki, Naomi Kawamura and Masaichiro Mizumaki (JASRI/SPring-8)
X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) is X-ray absorption spectroscopy using circularly polarized X-rays. This is a powerful technique to investigate magnetic materials, providing element specificity, electronic-shell selectivity, and angular-momentum sensitivity. XMCD experiments in the hard X-ray region (>4 keV) require no ultra-high vacuum condition and are particularly useful to study magnetism under multiple extreme conditions (high magnetic field, low temperature, and high pressure). In the practice, you will learn how to tune several devices at the beamline, the undulator, double-crystal monochromator, and X-ray phase plate, to generate a circularly polarized X-ray beam. You will take some XMCD data by static and polarization-modulation techniques to know that how the modulation technique is useful for improving the data quality. A practice of the sum-rule analysis to determine the magnetic moments from the measured XMCD spectra will be performed.
  beamline practical text 596KB


Theme: Microbeam Small-angle X-ray Diffraction of Hair
Noboru Ohta (JASRI/SPring-8)
BL40XU is a high-flux beamline. Microbeam small-angle x-ray diffraction is one of the applications of high-flux x-ray available at BL40XU. We plan to provide training on adjustment of pinhole optics, data collection and analysis using hair as an experimental sample.
  beamline practical text 56KB


Theme: Microspectroscopy using Infrared Synchrotron Radiation
Taro Moriwaki (JASRI/SPring-8)
BL43IR provides infrared radiation of high brilliance from a bending magnet with a large bending radius (39.3 m). The beamline is therefore suitable for the microspectroscopy applications at the diffraction limit scale of approximately 10-100 micrometers. We plan to provide an opportunity to learn infrared microspectroscopy on adjustment of the optics, sample preparation (human hair cross-sectioning), and measurements (two-dimensional mapping of the hair sample).
  beamline practical text 81KB


Theme: Powder Diffraction for Average and Local Structure Analysis
Kenichi Kato (RIKEN/SPring-8)
Most of crystalline materials possess not only long-range order (average) structure but also short-range order (local), which often affects physical and chemical properties. Powder diffraction data originally contain information on both structures as Bragg and diffuse scattering, which has been called ‘Total scattering’. However, it’s not as easy as we think to measure the data even by synchrotron radiation. This practical will bring you total scattering measurement technique using a photon-counting detector system for average and local structure analysis.
  beamline practical text  57KB


Theme: Wide angle-resolved Hard X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy
Eiji Ikenaga (JASRI/SPring-8)
Hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES) is a powerful tool to investigate the chemical states and electronic structures of various materials using third generation high-brilliance synchrotron radiation sources. The most advantageous feature of HAXPES is that enables intrinsically bulk sensitive electronic structures and buried interface profiles to be measured. The variable depth analysis of electronic properties provided by HAXPES has realized various applications both in basic and applied research fields. Recently, a wide angle-resolved hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy using an objective lens has realized at BL47XU in SPring-8. The objective lens system originally developed to investigate the variable the depth profile at once without rotating the sample angle along the incidence X-ray. The aim of this course is to learn the principle of HAXPES and gain experience of measuring the core level photoemission spectra using the objective lens system with angular resolving capability. Participants will learn how we can realize wide angle-resolved HAXPES to study the depth analysis of electronic structures in buried interface layers.
  beamline practical text 489MB